Passive Voice : Pengertian, Rumus, dan Contoh Kalimat

Diposting pada

KBI – Setelah sebelumnya KBI memberikan materi tentang tenses, pastinya sekarang Anda dapat membuat kalimat sederhana dalam bahasa Inggris. Nah, kali ini KBI akan memberikan materi tentang passive voice. Dalam bahasa Inggris terdapat 2 macam kalimat yaitu active voice (kalimat aktif) dan passive voice (kalimat pasif). Masih binggung tentang apasih passive voice itu? Untuk itu mari kita lihat contohnya di bawah ini:

Passive-Voice

Active voice dan passive voice sebenarnya memiliki persamaan arti pada kalimatnya. Object (an apple) pada kalimat active voice menjadi subject di kalimat passive voice dengan penambahan “by” pada objectnya. Singkatnya, active voice menyatakan subject yang aktif melakukan pekerjaan, dan pada passive voice subject yang dikenakan pekerjaan.

Pengertian Passive Voice

“Passive voice is a type of sentence or clause in which the subject receives the action of the verb.”

Passive voice adalah jenis kalimat atau klausa di mana subjek menerima tindakan dari kata kerja. Pada passive voice, subject kalimat tidak melakukan suatu tindakan/aksi melainkan subject menerima tindakan. Berbeda dengan kalimat aktif, dimana subjek bertindak sebagai pelaku tindakan. Active voice dapat diubah bentuk menjadi passive voice namun hanya berlaku pada kalimat dengan transitive verbs. Transitive verbs adalah kata kerja yang diikuti direct object.


Fungsinya adalah sebagai berikut :

1. Subjek/pokok pembicaraan.

  • The murderer has been arrested.
    (Pembunuh itu sudah ditahan)
  • The house was built in 1654.
    (Rumah itu dibangun tahun 1654)
  • The road is being repaired.
    (Jalan itu sedang diperbaiki)

Penjelasan

Ketiga kalimat diatas ingin menunjukkan atau menekankan Subjek/pokok pembicaraan, yaitu “the murderer”, “the house”, dan “the road”, bukan pada siapa yang melakukan ketiga kegiatan tersebut.


2. Pelaku Kegiatan.

Jika kita ingin membuat kalimat, dalam bahasa apapun itu, kita tahu siapa yang melakukan pekerjaan itu, sebaiknya gunakanlah “Kalimat Aktif“. Sebaliknya jika Anda tidak tahu atau ragu-ragu siapa yang melakukan suatu perbuatan, maka gunakanlah “kalimat Pasif“.

Contoh:

  • When I came, the door was opened.
    (Ketika saya tiba, pintunya terbuka)
  • Nodony knows why he was killed.
    (Tak seorangpun tahu mengapa dia terbunuh)
  • You know, my wife has no any enemies but my wife was murdered so cruelly.
    (Kamu tahu, istri saya tidak pernah musuh tetapi dia dibunuh secara kejam)


3. Pelaku yang sudah dikenal

Bagian ketiga ini adalah kebalikan dari bagian kedua diatas. Jika kita sudah yakin bahwa orang yang kita ajak bicara sudah mengetahui siapa yang melakukannya, maka Anda boleh menggunakan kalimat pasif.

Tujuan dari pembuatan kalimat pasif ini adalah untuk penghematan kalimat.

Contoh:

  • Indonesian independence was proclaimed on August 17, 1945.
    (Kemerdekaan Indonesia diproklamasikan pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945)
  • “Indonesia Raya” was composed in 1945.
    (Lagu Indonesia Raya dikarang pada tahun 1945).

Penjelasan

  • Tanpa kita sebutin siapa yang memproklamasikan, Pendengar atau orang yang kita ajak bicara mengerti siapa dia.
  • Semua orang sudah tahu siapa yang mengarang lagu Indonesia Raya.

Kesimpulan:

Jadi, selain ketiga alasan di atas, sebaiknya kita gunakan Kalimat Aktif. Semoga bermanfaat.

Dibawah ini adalah Rumus-rumus bagaimana cara membuat kalimat pasif dalam semua tenses dalam Bahasa Inggris.

  1. Simple Present Tense : S + is, am, are + V3 + dll
  2. Present Cont. Tense : S + is, am, are + being + V3  + dll
  3. Present Perf. Tense : S + have, has + been + V3 + dll
  4. Present Perf. Cont. Tense : S + have, has + been + being + V3  + dll
  5. Simple Past Tense : S + was, were + V3 + dll
  6. Past Cont. Tense : S + was, were + being + V3 + dll
  7. Past Perf. Tense : S + had + been + V3 + dll
  8. Past Perf. Cont. Tense : S + had + been + being + V3 + dll
  9. Simple Future Tense : S + will + be + V3 + dll
  10. Future Cont. Tense : S + will + be + being + V3 + dll
  11. Future Perf. Tense : S + will + have + been + V3 + dll
  12. Future Perf. Cont. Tense : S + will + have + been + being + V3 + dll
  13. Simple Past Future Tense : S + would + be + V3  + dll
  14. Past Future Cont. Tense : S + would + be + being + V3 + dll
  15. Past Future Perf. Tense : S + would + have + been + V3 + dll
  16. Past Future Perf. Cont. Tense : S + would +have + been + being + V3 + dll

KETERANGAN:

  1. Subject Kalimat Pasif disini adalah Objek pada Kalimat Aktif.
  2. Semua Kalimat Pasif harus menggunakan Kata Kerja bentuk ketiga (V3)
  3. Setelah V3 dapat juga Anda tambahkan dengan by + Subject pada kalimat aktif.



Rumus Passive Voice

Rumus passive voice adalah sebagai berikut:

S + be + past participle + (by agent)

ket:
S : Subject
be : auxiliary verb (am, is, are, was, were, has been, have been, will be, dll)
past participle: atau bisa disebut verb 3 (kata kerja bentuk ke 3)
(by agent) : pelaku dari tindakan

Contoh:

  • Active voice: I read a book.
    Passive voice: A book is read by me.
  • Active voice: He drive a car last night.
    Passive voice: A car was driven by him last night.

Contoh Bentuk Kalimat Passive Voice

1) Passive Imperative Sentence

Rumus:

Let + objek + be + Kata Kerja Bentuk III

  • Help the poor (active)
  • Let the poor be helped (passive)

2) Passive Infinitive: It is/was time

Rumus:

It is/was time for + objek + to be + kata kerja III

  • It is time to send the letter (active)
  • It is time for the letter to be sent (passive)

3) Negative Passive Imperative Sentence

Rumus:

Subjek + be + Kata kerja III + not to + infinitive

(kata kerja III yang sering digunakan adalah: advised, asked, begged, commanded, requested)

  • Don’t wait for me (active)
  • You are advised not to wait for me (passive)

4) Passive Sentence with Verbs of Perception

Rumus

Subjek + be + adjectives + when + subjek + be + kata kerja III

(kata kerja yang digunakan adalah: taste, smell, feel)

  • This food tastes delicious (active)
  • This food is delicious when it is tasted (passive)

5) Passive Sentence with Certain Verbs followed by ‘that-clause’

Kata kerja yang digunakan adalah: accept, admit, agree, assume, believe, decide, expect, find out, intend, plan, point out, presume, prove, regret, report, say, think, understand.

  • We regretted that the principal had to resign from office (active)
  • It was regretted that the principal had to resign from office (passive)

6) Passive Sentence with Nouns or Adjectives as Complements

  • I consider her very pretty (active)
  • She is considered very pretty (passive)

7) Passive Sentence with two objects

  • He gave me a book (active)
  • A book was given to me by him (passive 1)
  • I was given a book by him (passive 2)

8) Passive Sentence with Gerund Verbs

  • The teacher enjoyed teaching the students (active)
  • The students enjoyed being taught by the teacher (passive)

9) Agent consisting long expression at the end of sentence

Dalam kalimat pasif, jika pelaku terdiri dari ekspresi yang panjang, sebaiknya subjek tersebut ditempatkan di akhir kalimat setelah by.

  • We were all surprised by her sudden announcement to get married
  • I was confused by his plan to stop the ongoing project and begin a new one.

10) Passive Sentence with unique verbs

Kata kerja yang digunakan adalah: require, deserve, need

  • This wall needs to be painted (sama dengan)
  • This wall needs painting.

Kalimat pasif dalam bahasa Inggris terdiri dari dua elemen yaitu : bentuk kata kerja ‘to be’ + the past participle

Subjectverb ‘to be’past participle
The housewasbuilt …

Contoh : to clean

Subjectverb ‘to be’past participle
Simple present:
The houseiscleaned every day.
Present continuous:
The houseis beingcleaned at the moment.
Simple past:
The housewascleaned yesterday.
Past continuous:
The housewas beingcleaned last week.
Present perfect:
The househas beencleaned since you left.
Past perfect:
The househad beencleaned before their arrival.
Future:
The housewill becleaned next week.
Future continuous:
The housewill be beingcleaned tomorrow.
Present conditional:
The housewould becleaned if they had visitors.
Past conditional:
The housewould have beencleaned if it had been dirty.

Contoh Passive Voice

Penggunaan passive voice pada beberapa tenses akan berbeda tetapi tetap memiliki rumus yang sama. Berikut ini contoh passive voice dalam tenses:

 Active VoicePassive Voice
Simple PresentHe writes an article.
She feeds the dog.
An article is writen by him.
The dog is fed by her.
Simple PastHe wrote an article.
She fed the dog.
An article was writen by him.
The dog was fed by her.
Simple FutureHe will write an article.
She will feed the dog.
An article will be writen by him.
The dog will be fed by her.
Present PerfectHe has writen an article.
She has fed the dog.
An article has been writen by him.
The dog has been fed by her.

Contoh soal latihan passive voice

klik disini.

Demikian pembahahan lengkapnya semoga bermanfaat dan dapat menambah wawasan Anda tentang bahasa Inggris. Terima kasih.